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What is sterility?

Sterility is the inability to achieve pregnancy after a full year of normal frequent sexual relations without any contraceptive methods.

When the couple has never achieved any pregnancy, we talk about primary sterility. Secondary sterility is when no new pregnancies are achieved after the birth of the first born.

What is infertility?

Infertility is the inability to achieve pregnancies capable of evolving into feotal viability. This could be one of several situations such as repeated abortions, intrauterine fetal death, etc.

When a couple achieves pregnancies that do not result in a healthy new born, we talk about primary infertility. Secondary infertility is when no new pregnancies resulting in a healthy newborn are achieved after a first normal pregnancy and delivery.

What is subfertility?

Subfertility can be defined as the decrease in the ability to conceive. That is to say, the inability to achieve a spontaneous pregnancy in period longer than the average population.

Does this affect many couples?

In the western countries, sterility affects 15% of the population in childbearing age, that is to say one in six couples, and it is on the increase.

When is it appropiate so undergo a reproductive examination?

Generally speaking, couples who are having difficulties to achieve pregnancies should consult on this matter after a full year of normal frequent sexual relations without any contraceptive methods.

What to do after undergoing reproductive treatments that have failed?

It is necessary to carry out a personalised assessment for each couple. Then, choose the appropiate therapeutic procedure to follow after the results have been delivered.

Can an ovarian stimulation treatment speed up the onset of menopause?

Ovarian stimulation does not speed up the onset of menopause and neither do anovarian medication such as contraceptives. There are some two million primordial follicles in the ovaries at birth.

Until puberty, most of those follicles will experience atrophy so only 400.000 or so gametes will be present when women start their childbearing age. Around 400 of them will have the oportunity to mature completely and pass to the Falopian tubes and the uterus where they will be potentially fertilised, while the rest will undergo a process of atresia.

An important amount of the follicles present in the ovary after puberty will begin their development every month. Through ovarian stimulation, we only allow some of those follicles to mature instead of undergoing the process of atresia.

Can psychological factors cause infertility?

No. Although they can cause ovulation alteration. The psychological aspect is not a determining factor to achieve pregnancy. However, emotional alterations while undergoing assisted reproductive treatments can impact couples living standards and their way to face treatments.

Can relaxing and being calm help achieve pregnancy?

While it is not a primordial aspect to consider in order to achieve pregnancy, the psychological aspect can affect it.

How age impacts on female sterility?

Older women wishing to reproduce can be considered as the main cause for the increase of sterility in our society. A woman’s top fertility period occurs between 20 and 30 years old. From that moment onwards, the physiological decline of the reproductive capability begins, it being much significant after 35 and even greater after 38.

Who is responsible for sterility? Men or Women?

A few years ago, sterility causes were considered male and/or female in 35-40% of cases and mixed and/or of unknown origin in 15-20% of cases.

Nowadays, it is not considered as an indiviual problem, but as a couple’s problem and it needs to be understood, diagnosed and treated as such.

Which days is a woman most fertile?

A woman’s fertile window occurs from 6 days before the ovulation to approximately a day after said ovulation. That is the reason we do not stick to the 14th day of the menstrual cycle.

Do alcohol and caffeine have a negative impact on fertility?

Moderate alcohol and caffeine consumption have no negative impact on fertility. Although tobacco and high consumption of alcohol are not advised.

Do some sexual practices improve fertility?

Coital positions and post-coital routines do not influence fertility.

What is the percentage for a couple to get pregnant without assisted reproduction?

It is important to know that as a species, humans do not have a high reproductive power. We are talking about some 25% possibilities to get pregnant while having sexual relations during the woman’s ovulation period. It is said that young women (20-29 years old) need an average of 108 intercourses to get pregnant.

How often do you need to have sexual intercourse to achieve pregnancy?

According to some specialists, sexual intercourse should not follow a pattern but sould be frequent and not ajusted to a specific frequency. It is advisable not to read too much on the topic, nor do ovulation tests or check one’s temperature to try to predict something you can’t. Setting up days, hours or postures will only increase psychological pressure and anxiety.

What options can cancer patients take to preserve their fertility?

Thanks to the benefits of oocyte vitrification, youg patients who have been diagnosed with cancer and are going to undergo chemo or radiotherapy, can now become mothers in the future.

Similarly, male cancer patients can freeze their sperm to achieve those same results.